The scale became more and more used at the international level
The German original MRS scale was first translated and culturally
adapted into English, showing cross-cultural equivalence [
Partners of ZEG Berlin (www.zeg-berlin.de) did many of the translations;
others were done by individual research groups such as the two
Chinese versions. Several new linguistic and cultural adaptations
were recently performed by the MAPI Research Institute (www.mapi-research-inst.com),
particularly for East-European languages, supported by Solvay
Pharmaceuticals. The translations were performed in congruence
with international methodological recommendations for linguistic
& cultural adaptation of HRQoL measures [
12 ] using the English version as source language to ensure
cross-cultural equivalence among countries. Six steps of the translation
process were recommended: Forward translations (at least two independent
translators), a consensus meeting with the coordinator of the
translation, a check by a bilingual expert in the application
field of the scale to evaluate the scientific correctness of the
wording, a backward translation, a consensus meeting among the
translators with the coordinator, and finally a pretest with a
few persons to test the understandability of the overall scale
and of each item (also called cognitive debriefing).
For completeness, all MRS versions we are aware of are attached
as additional files in PDF-format (Adobe Acrobat). The majority
of language versions followed the same, i.e. internationally recommended,
complex methodology of language adaptation. For this reason, we
can assume that different language versions have linguistic and
cultural equivalence, although different groups did the translation
work. We will further try to facilitate this process in other
languages if requested.
If the scale should be applied in other countries with the “same”
language, e.g. speaking also Spanish, Portuguese or English language,
at least a critical review of the translation of all items or
even the introduction has to be made by a group experienced in
cultural adaptation of health related Quality-of-Life scales.
In some cases, a new translation could be necessary. This is a
complex process that needs expert experience, which can be offered
from the author of this Website (Prof. Heinemann, ZEG Berlin).
Altogether, 25 language versions of the MRS are currently in
use. For access to the respective language version of interest,
please see additional files linked here:
It should be stressed that persons who are interested in applying
the MRS scale in their research can download the appropriate language
version and use it without any formal permission. However, it
would be important for further developing the scale to keep an
overview who is using the scale and for what reason.
Therefore, an information should be sent to the developers of
this scale (see Contact).
In return, all information on the scale that became known in between
will be made available.
[ 7 ]. Anonymous. Trust introduces new translation criteria. Medical
Outcomes Trust Bulletin 1997;5:2-4
[ 11 ]. Schneider HPG, Heinemann LAJ, Rosemeier HP, Potthoff P,
Behre HM. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS): Comparison with Kupperman
Index and Quality of Life Scale SF-36. Climacteric 2000;3:50-58
[ 12 ]. Schneider HPG, Rosemeier HP, Schnitker J, Gerbsch S, Turck
R. Application and factor analysis of the menopause rating scale
[MRS] in a post-marketing surveillance study of Climen®. Maturitas